Road user charging in transport is used across Europe for raising revenue, dealing with congestion and internalising transport costs. Concerns over escalating congestion, pollution and carbon dioxide issues, i.e. the sustainability of road transport, put even more emphasis on fair road pricing schemes in Europe.
Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) is an overall notion used to designate ICT solutions that automatically, and without stopping, collect road user charges. EFC systems allow effective charging of road vehicles and support a broad variety of pricing policies. There are three main technologies used in EFC today:
There are many EFC systems in Europe today. However, most of them have been developed and expanded on a regional basis creating different variants between different nations. In order to reap the full benefits of EFC systems they need to be interoperable, allowing a vehicle to pay charges in different countries using a single on-board equipment (OBE) and a single contract.
For this reason European regulations have been adopted (i.e. Directive 2004/52/EC, EC Decision 2009/750/EC and Directive (EU) 2019/520) that set out to create a European electronic toll service (EETS). Interested EETS users must be provided with the option to sign up for a single subscription contract and OBE with an EETS Service Provider of his choice, giving them access to the service on the whole of the road network in the entire Community.
EFC standards provide solid technical support for agreements between stakeholders and form a foundation for the interoperability between EFC systems. Overall the standardisation of EFC contributes to improving circulation of goods, services and people in Europe.
CEN/TC278/WG1 is responsible for European standardising of the EFC application, whilst other international standardisation groups develop technology-related standards (such as GNSS and communication protocols). Most EFC standards are developed as joint work items with ISO (TC 204/WG5). In addition ETSI provides certain technical standards on testing that are important for EFC.
The current standardisation work includes defining application interfaces between equipment, information flows between EFC operators, architecture, security, conformance evaluation and test standards, personalisation of OBE, performance indicators and enforcement/monitoring support.
Standardisation in WG1 is divided into the following areas:
CEN and ETSI are working closely together with the EC on standards that will underpin the EETS, under the EC Mandate M/338. WG1 develops the standards that form the main technical building blocks for defining this interoperable service, and supports the notified bodies EETS coordination group (NB EETS CG). Much of the standardisation work undertaken builds on the work from European EFC projects, such as CARDME, CESARE-4, PISTA, MEDIA, RCI and REETS.
Download An Introduction to EFC Standards
For further information please contact the convenor of WG1 Mr Jesper Engdahl (jesper.engdahl-at-rapp.ch) or the secretary of WG1 Ms Frédérique Rigah (frederique.rigah-at-cerema.fr).
WG 1 has, jointly with ISO/TC204/WG5, produced a series of standards, technical specifications and technical reports. These documents can be purchased from CEN, ISO or national standardisation bodies.
Click for a standard preview (which links to the on-line store for purchasing the full document) or to download data structures (ASN.1 code) or abstract test suites (TTCN code).
|DSRC-based EFC||EFC technology independent||Autonomous EFC|
|Frameworks||ISO 21719-1 OBE Personalization Framework||ISO 17573 -1 EFC Architecture|
|ISO 17573-2 EFC Vocabulary|
|ISO 17574 Security Profiles|
|ISO 19299 Security Framework|
|Toolboxes||ISO 14906 AID for DSRC EFC [ASN.1]||ISO 12855 Information exchange between TC and TSP [ASN.1]||ISO 17575 AID for Autonomous EFC [part1][part2][part3][ASN.1]|
|ISO 25110 AID for IC-cards||ISO 17444-1 Charging Performance Indicators – Metrics||CEN 16702 Secure Monitoring [part1][part2][ASN.1]|
|ISO 16785 Interface between DSRC-OBE and external in-vehicle devices [ASN.1]||ISO 21192 EFC for traffic management [ASN.1]|
|ISO 21193 EFC using Common Media [ASN.1]|
|Profiles||CEN 15509 IAP for DSRC EFC||CEN 16986 IAP for Information Exchange between TC and TSP [WSDL]||CEN 16331 IAP for Autonomous Tolling|
|ISO 21719-2 OBE Personalization – DSRC||ISO 12813 Compliance Check Communication (CCC) [ASN.1]|
|ISO 13141 Location Augmentation Communication (LAC) [ASN.1]|
|Tests||ISO 14907-1 Test procedures for user and fixed equipment||ISO 17444-2 Charging Performance Indicators – Examination Framework||ISO 16407 Tests against 17575-1 [part1][part2][TTCN]|
|ISO 14907-2 OBU tests against 14906||CEN 17154 Tests against 16986 [part1][part2][TTCN]||ISO 16410 Tests against 17575-3 [part1][part2][TTCN]|
|CEN 15876 Tests against 15509 [part1][part2] [TTCN]||ISO 13143 Tests against 12813 [part1][part2][TTCN]|
|ISO 13140 Tests against 13141[part1][part2][TTCN]|
|CEN 15509||IAP for DSRC EFC||The scope is limited to: the payment method Central account based on EFC-DSRC; the physical systems OBU, RSE and the DSRC interface between them (all functions and information flows related to these parts); the EFC transactions over the DSRC interface; the data elements to be used by OBU and RSE used in EFC-DSRC transactions; security mechanisms for OBU and RSE used in EFC-DSRC transactions|
|CEN 15876||Tests against 15509||It contains the Test Suite Structure (TSS) and Test Purposes (TP) to evaluate the conformity of on-board units Roadside Equipment to EN 15509|
|CEN 16331||IAP for Autonomous Tolling||A set of interoperable application profiles suitable to be used defining the overall functionality of an interoperable EFC cluster using autonomous vehicle equipment, doing so, it also defines a way of defining further profiles for future use. The profiles cover a wide range from simple toll road systems up to very complex tolling principles and tariff rules. An EFC cluster shall select and use one of these profiles covering the needs of all participating Toll Chargers.|
|CEN 16702||Secure Monitoring||It specifies transactions and data for Compliance Checking – Secure Monitoring as well as the requirements for the Secure Application Module used in the secure monitoring compliance checking concept|
|CEN 16986||IAP for Information Exchange between TC and TSP||The aim of these standard is to produce a profile standard that provides appropriate technical interoperability to support the EFC information exchange between toll service providers (TSPs) and toll chargers (TCs) based on DSRC as well as on GNSS/CN – autonomous systems. It covers the definition of interoperable application profiles (IAP) applicable for the use of EN ISO 12855. These profiles define a specific set of transactions, triggers, conditions and data elements for an interoperable exchange of data between the central equipment of TCs and TSPs in Europe.|
|CEN 17154||Tests against 16986||it contains the Test Suite Structure (TSS) and Test Purposes (TP) to evaluate the conformity of implementations|
|ISO 12813||Compliance Check Communication (CCC)||It defines requirements for DSRC (dedicated short-range communication) between OBE and an interrogator for the purpose of checking compliance of road use with a local toll regime. It assumes an EFC service architecture according to ISO 17573|
|ISO 12855||Information exchange between TC and TSP||it specifies the exchange of information between the central equipment of the two roles of service provision and toll charging, e.g. charging related data (toll declarations, billing details), administrative data, confirmation data|
|ISO 13140||Tests against 13141||it specifies the test suite structure (TSS), test purposes (TP) and abstract test suite (ATS) to evaluate the conformity of on-board equipment (OBE) and roadside equipment (RSE) to ISO 13141. It provides a basis for conformance tests for dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) equipment (on-board equipment and roadside equipment) to enable interoperability between different equipment supplied by different manufacturers|
|ISO 13141||Location Augmentation Communication (LAC)||It defines requirements for short-range communication for the purposes of augmenting the localisation in autonomous electronic fee collection (EFC) systems. Localisation augmentation serves to inform OBE abut geographical location and the identification of a charge object. It specifies the provision of location and beading information and security means to protect from the manipulation of the OBE with false roadside equipment (RSE)|
|ISO 13143||Tests against 12813||it specifies the test suite structure (TSS), test purposes (TP) and abstract test suite (ATS) to evaluate the conformity of on-board units (OBU) and roadside equipment (RSE) to ISO 12813. It provides a basis for conformance tests for dedicated short range communication (DSRC) equipment (on-board units and roadside units) to enable interoperability between different equipment supplied by different manufacturers|
|ISO 14906||AID for DSRC EFC||it specifies the application interface in the context of electronic fee collection (EFC) systems using the dedicated short-range communication (DSRC). The EFC application interface is the EFC application process interface to the DSRC application layer.|
|ISO 14907-1||Test procedures for user and fixed equipment||A toolbox of tests and procedures for the assessment and proof of sustainability of EFC-systems for the specified EFC applications under specific operational conditions|
|ISO 14907-2||OBU tests against 14906||It describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of implementations of functions and data structures, as defined in the implementation conformance statement based on ISO 14906:2011, for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications. After the tests of isolated data items and functions, an example is given for testing of a complete EFC transaction|
|ISO 16407||Tests against 17575-1|
|ISO 16410||Tests against 17575-3|
|ISO 16785||Interface between DSRC-OBE and external in-vehicle devices||It defines an application interface between DSRC-based OBE and external in-vehicle devices to make DSRC-OBE applicable for diversified tolling environment|
|ISO 17444-1||Charging Performance Indicators – Metrics||It defines metrics for the charging performance if electronic fee collection systems in terms of the level of errors associated with charging computation and is a toolbox standard of metrics. The detailed choice of metrics depends on the application and the respective context. It describes a set of metrics with appropriate definitions, principles and formulations which together make up a reference framework for the establishment of requirements for EFC systems and their later examination of the charging performance, the charging performance metrics defined are intended for use with any Charging Scheme, regardless of its technical underpinnings, system architecture, tariff structure geographical coverage, or organisational model. They are defined to treat technical details that may be different among technologies and vendors of vary over time as a “black box”.|
|ISO 17444-2||Charging Performance Indicators – Examination Framework||It defines the Examination Framework for the measurement of Charging Performance Metrics defined in ISO/TS 17444-1 to be used during Evaluation and/or on-going Monitoring. It specifies a method for the specification and documentation of a Specific Examination Framework which can be used by the responsible entity to evaluate charging performance for a particular information exchange interface or for overall charging performance within a Toll Scheme.|
|ISO 17573 -1||EFC Architecture – Part 1: Reference Modal||It defines the architecture of a toll system environment in which a customer with one contract can use a vehicle in a variety of toll domains and with a different Toll Charger for each domain|
|ISO 17573-2||EFC Vocabulary – Part 2 Vocabulary||It defines terms within the field of electronic fee collection and road user charging|
|ISO 17574||Security Profiles||Guidelines for preparation and valuation of security requirements specifications, referred to as Protection Profiles (PP) in the ISO/IEC 15408 series and in ISO/IEC TR 15446. By a PP us meant a set of security requirements for a category of products or systems that meet specific needs. A typical example would be a PP for On-Board Equipment to be used in an EFC system|
|ISO 17575||AID for Autonomous EFC||A series of specifications defining the information exchange between the Front End and the Back end in Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) based on autonomous on-board equipment (OBE). EFC systems automatically collect charging data for the use of road infrastructure including motorway tolls, zone-based fees in urban areas, tolls for special infrastructure like bridges and tunnels, distance-based charging and parking fees, autonomous OBE operates without relying on dedicated road side infrastructure by employing wide-area technologies such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Cellular Communications Networks (CN). These EFC systems are referred to by a variety of names. Besides the terms autonomous systems and GNSS/CN systems, also the terms GPS/GSM systems, and wide-area charging systems are in use|
|ISO 19299||Security Framework||It describes a set of requirements and associated security measures for stakeholders to implement and thus ensure a secure operation of their part of an EFC system as required for a trustworthy environment according to its security policy. In general, the overall scope of this TS is an information security framework for all organisational and technical entities and in detail for the processes using the interfaces between them|
|ISO 21192||EFC for traffic management||It specifies the reference architecture, data exchange model and application data that can be exchanged between a Toll Charger and a Road and Traffic Manager|
|ISO 21193||EFC using Common Media||It defines requirements to support information exchanges in common payment schemes; functional requirements, application structure and application data in a common payment medium|
|ISO 21719-1||OBE Personalization Framework – Part 1: Framework||It defines common functionality for personalisation that is independent of the communication media and personalisation equipment used, while the subsequent parts define in detail how the functions are realised on different defined communication media and interfaces.|
|ISO 21719-2||OBE Personalization – Part 2: Using dedicated short range communication:||It defines a complete supplication profile using the personalisation functionality described in ISO/TC 21719-1, on top of a CEN DSRC stack according to the RTTT communication profiles in EN 13372 and using the EFC Application Interface according to ISO 14906|
|ISO 25110||AID for IC-cards||It specifies the application interface in the context of electronic fee collection (EFC) systems using the dedicated short-range communication (DSRC). The EFC application interface is the EFC application process interface to the DSRC application layer|