Electronic Fee Collection

Road user charging in transport is used across Europe for raising revenue, dealing with congestion and internalising transport costs. Concerns over escalating congestion, pollution and carbon dioxide issues, i.e. the sustainability of road transport, put even more emphasis on fair road pricing schemes in Europe.

Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) is an overall notion used to designate ICT solutions that automatically, and without stopping, collect road user charges. EFC systems allow effective charging of road vehicles and support a broad variety of pricing policies. There are three main technologies used in EFC today:

There are many EFC systems in Europe today. However, most of them have been developed and expanded on a regional basis creating different variants between different nations. In order to reap the full benefits of EFC systems they need to be interoperable, allowing a vehicle to pay charges in different countries using a single on-board equipment (OBE) and a single contract.

For this reason European regulations have been adopted (i.e. Directive 2004/52/EC, EC Decision 2009/750/EC and Directive (EU) 2019/520) that set out to create a European electronic toll service (EETS). Interested EETS users must be provided with the option to sign up for a single subscription contract and OBE with an EETS Service Provider of his choice, giving them access to the service on the whole of the road network in the entire Community.


EFC standardization

EFC standards provide solid technical support for agreements between stakeholders and form a foundation for the interoperability between EFC systems. Overall the standardisation of EFC contributes to improving circulation of goods, services and people in Europe.

CEN/TC278/WG1 is responsible for European standardising of the EFC application, whilst other international standardisation groups develop technology-related standards (such as GNSS and communication protocols). Most EFC standards are developed as joint work items with ISO (TC 204/WG5). In addition ETSI provides certain technical standards on testing that are important for EFC.

The current standardisation work includes defining application interfaces between equipment, information flows between EFC operators, architecture, security, conformance evaluation and test standards, personalisation of OBE, performance indicators and enforcement/monitoring support.

Standardisation in WG1 is divided into the following areas:

  • DSRC-based EFC standards (including testing).
  • Autonomous (GNSS/CN-based) EFC-standards (including testing).
  • Technology-independent standards (architecture, security, information flows, etc).

CEN and ETSI are working closely together with the EC on standards that will underpin the EETS, under the EC Mandate M/338. WG1 develops the standards that form the main technical building blocks for defining this interoperable service, and supports the notified bodies EETS coordination group (NB EETS CG). Much of the standardisation work undertaken builds on the work from European EFC projects, such as CARDME, CESARE-4, PISTA, MEDIA, RCI and REETS.

Download An introduction to standardization of EFC.

For further information please contact the convenor of WG1 Mr Jesper Engdahl (jesper.engdahl-at-rapp.ch) or the secretary of WG1 Ms Frédérique Rigah (frederique.rigah-at-cerema.fr).


Overview of standards (and links to machine-readable code)

WG 1 has, jointly with ISO/TC204/WG5, produced a series of standards, technical specifications and technical reports. These documents can be purchased from CEN, ISO or national standardisation bodies.

Click for a standard preview (which links to the on-line store for purchasing the full document) or to download data structures (ASN.1 code) or abstract test suites (TTCN code). You can also hover over underlined words for additional information.



DSRC-based EFC

EFC technology independent

Autonomous EFC


ISO 21719-1 OBE Personalization Framework

ISO 17573-1 EFC Architecture

ISO 17573-2 EFC Vocabulary

ISO 17574 Security Profiles

ISO 19299 Security Framework



ISO 14906 AID for DSRC EFC [ASN.1]

ISO 25110 AID for IC-cards

ISO 16785 Interface between DSRC-OBE and external in-vehicle devices [ASN.1]

ISO 12855 Information exchange between TC and TSP [ASN.1]

ISO 17444-1 Charging Performance Indicators - Metrics

ISO 21192 EFC for traffic management [ASN.1]

ISO 21193 EFC using Common Media [ASN.1]

ISO 17575 AID for Autonomous EFC [part1][part2][part3][ASN.1]

CEN 16702 Secure Monitoring [part1][part2][ASN.1]


CEN 15509 IAP for DSRC EFC

ISO 21719-2 OBE Personalization - DSRC

CEN 16986 IAP for Information Exchange between TC and TSP [WSDL]

CEN 16331 IAP for Autonomous Tolling

ISO 12813 Compliance Check Communication (CCC) [ASN.1]

ISO 13141 Location Augmentation Communication (LAC) [ASN.1]


ISO 14907-1 Test procedures for user and fixed equipment

ISO 14907-2 OBU tests against 14906

CEN 15876 Tests against 15509 [part1][part2][TTCN]

ISO 17444-2 Charging Performance Indicators - Examination Framework

CEN 17154 Tests against 16986  [part1][part2][TTCN]

ISO 16407 Tests against 17575-1 [part1][part2][TTCN]

ISO 16410 Tests against 17575-3 [part1][part2][TTCN]

ISO 13143 Tests against 12813 [part1][part2][TTCN]

ISO 13140 Tests against 13141[part1][part2][TTCN]